Accord’s API comprises three main building blocks:


As with any validation framework, Accord faces two design considerations: discovery (which validator should be executed? What happens if there are multiple options?) and execution (running the actual validator and obtaining the results). Accord solves these dilemmas by:

  • Defining Validator[T] as a function from some type under validation T to Accord’s result model;
  • Making Validator[T] a typeclass, and leveraging Scala’s normal implicit resolution mechanism for discovery.

This provides a very flexible API with which to scope and execute validators. The recommended practice is to place a class’s validator in its companion object, thereby making it automatically visible to anyone using the class, but validators can be placed anywhere and resolved explicitly if needed:

case class Person( name: String, age: Int )
case object Person {
  import com.wix.accord.dsl._

  // The following validator is automatically included in implicit search scope,
  // so users of the Person class do not have to explicitly import it.
  implicit val personValidator = validator[ Person ] { p =>
    p.name is notEmpty
    p.age should be >= 18

import com.wix.accord._       // Import the Accord root API

val person = Person( "Sherlock Holmes", 27 )

// A suitable validator is automatically resolved from Person's companion object:
val result1 = validate( person )

// You can also specify an explicit validator:
val result2 = validate( person )( Person.personValidator )

// Since a validator is a function, you can also explicitly apply it:
val result3 = Person.personValidator( person )

// All three are equivalent!
assert( result1 == result2 && result2 == result3 )


The Accord domain model is quite simple (following is a minimal excerpt, for the full API definition see Result.scala):

// A validation result can either be a success or a failure:
sealed trait Result
case object Success extends Result
case class Failure( violations: Set[ Violation ] ) extends Result

// Failures aggregate one or more violations:
trait Violation {
  /** The actual value that failed validation, e.g. 15 */
  def value: Any                     
  /** The violated constraint, e.g. "got 15, expected 18 or more" */
  def constraint: String
  /** The actual generated path of the object under validation, more details below */
  def path: Path

The vast majority of violations indicate a broken rule; some validators, notably delegation via valid and the or operator, produce a violation that encompasses a group of violations. Consider the following example:

case class Address( street: String, city: String, zipcode: Option[ String ] )
case class Person( name: String, age: Int, address: Address )

import com.wix.accord.dsl._

implicit val addressValidator = validator[ Address ] { a =>
  a.street is notEmpty
  a.city is notEmpty
  a.zipcode.each is notEmpty

implicit val personValidator = validator[ Person ] { p =>
  p.name is notEmpty
  p.age should be >= 18
  p.address is valid      // Implicitly delegates to addressValidator

What happens if you validate an instance of Person that has an empty name? A rule has been broken, and consequently you’d expect a single violation. But what if the person’s address is also bad, and in fact has multiple violations? One can imagine two possibilities:

  • Generate multiple violations, and mark each with a “path” to the relevant expression (e.g. p.address.street). This has the benefit of only requiring a single abstraction, but becomes quite unwieldy with multiple indirections, indexing into sequences and other “path” types.
  • Add a container type to the domain model. While it makes the model more complex, it has the benefit of added flexibility on top of the full context.

Accord takes the second approach, and provides two built-in violation types: RuleViolation and GroupViolation (see full API). Based on the above example, here’s a sample validation output:

import com.wix.accord._
val result = validate( Person( "", 27, Address( "221B Baker Street", "", Some( "" ) ) ) )

assert( result == Failure( Set(
  // First violation:
  RuleViolation( "", "must not be empty", Path( Generic( "name" ) ) ),

  // Second violation:
    value       = Address( "221B Baker Street", "", Some( "" ) ),
    constraint  = "is invalid",
    description = Path( Generic( "address" ) ),
    children = Set(
      RuleViolation( "", "must not be empty", Path( Generic( "city" ) ) ),
      RuleViolation( "", "must not be empty", Path( Generic( "zipcode" ) ) 
) ) )


Accord automatically generates descriptions for each validation rule based on the expression left of is. Since a rule can validate any arbitrary Scala expression, Accord features a fine-grained description model which is exposed through a violation’s path property.

Any violation can be traced through a Path, which is a sequence of “steps” into the domain model. An empty path means the root object itself failed a validation rule, but it is much more common in practice to see paths leading to specific properties. Each “step” in the path is encoded as an instance of the Description trait, with the following subclasses available:

Class Description
Explicit An explicitly described validation rule (via the as DSL operator)
Generic A textual description when Accord can’t break the expression down further (e.g. property name)
Indexed Indicates indexed access, such as into a sequence
Branch Denotes that the desirable validation strategy depends of the result of an if statement
PatternMatch Denotes that the desirable validation strategy depends on the result of a pattern match

With this model, Accord automatically produces detailed information about the exact object that violated a particular rule, for example:

import com.wix.accord._
import com.wix.accord.dsl._
import com.wix.accord.Descriptions._     // For assertions

// First set up a sample domain object and validator:

case class Person( age: Int,
                   guardian: Option[ String ], 
                   ssn: Option[ String ], 
                   heightInMeters: Double, 
                   weightInKG: Double )

def bmi( heightInMeters: Double, weightInKG: Double ) =
  weightInKG / ( heightInMeters * heightInMeters )

implicit val personValidator = validator[ Person ] { p =>
  p.age as "Legal age" must be >= 0
  p.heightInMeters must be >= 0.0
  p.weightInKG must be >= 0.0
  bmi( p.heightInMeters, p.weightInKG ) must be <= 25.0
  if ( p.age < 18 )
    p.guardian is notEmpty
    p.ssn is notEmpty

val person = Person( 18, Some( "Super Dad" ), Some( "078-05-1120" ), 2, 100 )

// Now we can execute various failed violations and examine
// the resulting descriptions.
// 1. Explicitly described fields (using the 'as' keyword):

val explicit = validate( person.copy( age = -1 ) )
assert( explicit == Failure( Set(
    value = -1,
    constraint = "got -1, expected 0 or more",
    path = Path( Explicit( "Legal age" ) )
) ) )

// 2. Named property access:

val propertyAccess = validate( person.copy( heightInMeters = -4.0 ) )
assert( propertyAccess == Failure( Set(
    value = -4.0,
    constraint = "got -4.0, expected 0.0 or more",
    path = Path( Generic( "heightInMeters" ) )
) ) )

// 3. Arbitrary expressions:

val generic = validate( person.copy( weightInKG = 120 ) )
assert( generic == Failure( Set(
    value = 30.0,
    constraint = "got 30.0, expected 25.0 or less",
    path = Path( Generic( "bmi( p.heightInMeters, p.weightInKG )" ) )
) ) )

// 4. Branch (if/else):

val branch = validate( person.copy( age = 1, guardian = None ) )
assert( branch == Failure( Set(
    value = None,
    constraint = "must not be empty",
    path = Path(
      Branch( guard = Generic( "p.age < 18" ), evaluation = true ),
      Generic( "guardian" )
) ) )

Dealing with these descriptions can be a bit of a chore, and Accord provides a simple string-rendering function (Descriptions.render):

def descriptionOf( r: Result ) = 
  Descriptions.render( r.toFailure.get.violations.head.path )

assert( descriptionOf( explicit ) == "Legal age" )
assert( descriptionOf( generic ) == "bmi( p.heightInMeters, p.weightInKG )" )
assert( descriptionOf( propertyAccess ) == "heightInMeters" )
assert( descriptionOf( branch ) == "value [where p.age < 18 is true].guardian" )